Some ancient settlements near Smolensk V. V. Sedov, on an immediate vicinity with them Slavic settlements and the cemeteries VIII—ò of centuries AD surveyed approximate date of these ancient settlements, including their synchronous to the monuments, next to them.
In Bryansk Polesia where at a turn of our era the of Slavic colonists directed, is investigated very interesting ancient settlement of yukhnovsky culture (gerodotovsky budina, obviously Baltic tribes the Blagoveshchensk mountain which appeared a sanctuary.
By the size of the ancient settlement share on two categories: one of them are small — diameter of a platform in shaft of 25 — 30 m and the area of its 450 — 700 sq.m; ancient settlements of other order meet diameter of 130 — 180 m and with an internal area of 13000 — 20000 sq.m, i.e. time in 30 is more, than at small ancient settlements. Similar huge the is made by very small percent of total.
Spring round dances with songs and dances are noted and in the well-known description old Slavs of customs, made the chronicler Nestor at the very beginning of XII in. They were carried out not in settlements, and outdoors, "mezhyu Cela" (that reflected ekzogamny representations).
Interestingly geographical distribution of marsh ancient settlements. The bulk of round marsh ancient settlements sanctuaries fits into the framework of milogradsky culture specified by O. N. Melnikovska. To the north of border of milogradsky culture they meet. At difficulty of dating of ancient settlements it is impossible to definitely that peripheral monuments are result of later colonization, but this most probable assumption.
On the level the Milogradsky culture was much more. than forest-steppe skolotsky. Nevra in Herodotus's description too rather wild people living on the very brink of manned lands.
The duality man's and a feminine affected that the doll effigy of Kostroma sometimes was dressed as a real man. Invariable is a drowning of Kostroma in water. Etymologically the word "Kostroma" is connected with the words designating "a shaggy top of herbs", to "", "a small beard of ears".
Can enter a name of the brother Ivanushki on a ceremony on the night of Ivan Kupala; then the sister — itself Bathed, the victim doomed to become "in water potoplyaemy". In kupalsky night and "fires burn great" with N the ceremonies at water imitating drowning of the victim are made: bathing of the girl who is dressed up by Kupala or immersion in effigy water — the doll representing Kupalu.
Unfortunately, it is made only on five examples. Considerably bigger material was involved by L. D. Pobol who filled up Lyavdansky's card and revealed only 250 marsh ancient settlements. The majority of ancient settlements did not contain an occupation layer, but material of milogradsky and zarubinetsky cultures in certain cases met.
Estimating Babina the mountain as a historical complex, it is necessary to consider two more circumstances: first that it is located in the center of the steady srednedneprovsky region which is perfectly strengthened (strategically) in skolotsky time, and, secondly, that inhabitants of vicinities of an estimated sanctuary traded with the antique cities again and bought amphoras of the maloaziysky cities. The idea of use of natural descent to the river a semicircle could arise at people who saw the Greek amphitheaters of Pontus.
Most wide circulation of ceremonies of drowning of dolls ( female) in the days of "the top of summer" (the end of June) coinciding with a summer solstice quite correspond to abundance in a forest zone of the ancient settlements which arose in Scythian time and existed to Kievan Rus'.
The sanctuary on a bog was given ideally round form. that here, as well as at creation of a barrow, thought model of the visible earth, the correct circle of the horizon outlook as an antithesis of elements of water. There is an assumption that marsh ancient settlements (sometimes bulk, artificially made people) could be to the owner of this lower world as whom the pangolin often acts. In cosmological composition of Ugrian or Samoyed plaques the lower world was always represented in the form of a pangolin with a wolf ear and a razinuty mouth — the pangolin swallows of the evening setting sun.