Manufacturing industry makes an essential contribution to environmental pollution, strengthening growth ecological interdependence of the countries. From its branches oil processing, metallurgy, chemical industry, production of cement, rubber products most negatively influence environment, pulp-and-paper and some branches of the food industry.
Processing, the industry of the oil countries of the Middle East has accurate specialization on production of the petrochemical industry and on the smelting of aluminum which is based on local cheap energy and imported raw materials. All this industry works for the markets of other countries and has continuous long-term communications with Europe and the countries of Southeast Asia. Production of the final products is developed a little, except for Iran here.
During industrialization in the countries of this group, as well as everywhere, the role of seaports increased. They became the centers of concentration of manufacturing industry and, expanding, turn into industrial zones.
Manufacturing industry is a set of all industries which are engaged in processing or processing of the raw materials received mining, the industry, agriculture, forestry, fishery, hunting and production of semi-finished products. Its major branches: mechanical engineering and metal working, black nonferrous metallurgy, oil processing, chemical and woodworking industry, production of construction materials, paper, textile, clothing, shoe, food industry. It is clear that manufacturing industry - the leading sector of the world industry. As a rule, it - the leading factor of economic development of the countries and their areas.
- northern, the northwest and central regions of Foreign Europe the tropical priokeanichesky Atacama Desert, Namib, Western Sahara, peninsula California for which quasistationary anti-cyclones and the related temperature inversions are typical.
The enterprises of light industry also began to move on the periphery of the countries of the West European region, is closer to cheap labor. So shoe, textile and sewing industries moved to the countries of Southern Europe: Portugal, Greece, Spain, Southern Italy. In Western Europe the increasing value is gained by srednetekhnologichesky branches, such, as the car - and machine-tool construction, the general mechanical engineering, electrical equipment, and recently and the aerospace industry in which the West European countries have the recognized traditions, reliable image and high quality of production. One of the latest tendencies in manufacturing industry - growth of territorial communications of science and the industry and creation of scientific and industrial complexes. This tendency was especially shown in Germany and France.
"The new industrial countries" are located generally in Southeast Asia. Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand carry to them. These countries already became the largest area of development of the manufacturing industry focused first of all on export. The dominating role of export caused structural changes in two directions here: it directly promoted growth of productivity in manufacturing industry in general, and growth of productivity in export branches indirectly influenced development of not export branches. In Southeast Asia the highest growth rates of manufacturing industry in the world. The western companies transfer the numerous enterprises for production of household electrical equipment, radio electronics, etc. here.
Among branches of manufacturing industry most ferrous metallurgy, production of cement, fertilizers, to a lesser extent mechanical engineering which still not completely satisfies needs of the country considerably grow. In this branch production of mass simple products, for example bicycles on which production China became the world leader prevails.
Contrasts of the developed and backward areas is first of all contrasts in industrializovannost level: in release industrial production per capita, in a share of manufacturing industry, in the income of the population, in a share of the industry in economy, etc.